Parma is a town in the town of Emilia-Romagna, capital of the province of Parma.
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|Inhabitants||192 836 2015|
|Phone Prefix||+39 0521|
Ancient capital of the Duchy of Parma and Piacenza (1545-1859), the city of Parma has been a university seat since the 11th century. Since 2002 it has been the seat of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and since 1990 it has been awarded by the UNESCO Po River Basin Authority (AdbPo) since 1956 by the Magistrate for the Po River, which became the Inter-Regional Agency for the Po River (AIPO), since 2015 it was awarded by the UNESCO del The title is "Creative City for Gastronomy." Since 1994, a detachment of the Department of Scientific Investigations (RIS) has been established, which deals with scientific investigations concerning northern Italy. In Parma there are important banking institutions, such as the Parma Savings Bank and Piacenza best known as Cariparma and Banca Monte Parma, incorporated in Intesa-Sanpaolo SpA.
Parma was appointed Italian Capital of Culture for 2020.
Situated in northern Italy, in the western part of Emilia, between the Appennines and the Padana Plain, the city is divided into two by the River Parma, a tributary of the Po which, just before entering the heart of the historic center, receives the waters of the Influential Baganza. The Parma is a stream, so a fluid stream that's changing, alternating the swollen winter floods, when it's named Parma voladora, to the desolate summer dry weather.
When to go
The climate of Parma is typically continental: summers are hot and hot with a daytime temperature of approximately 30 °C, with strong thunderstorms on the lower plain. Winters are rigid with minimum temperatures often below zero. The snowstorms are very frequent in the Appennine, while the average snow falls in the town and flat sector every winter around 35 - 40 cm of snow. In the autumn, the phenomenon of fog is frequent, especially in the north of Via Emilia and the river Po. The rainy month is October, the driest month is July.
The Parmense plain was in the prehistoric area of land, of which many settlements have found themselves. Parma was perhaps Etruscan, then Celtic; in 183 a. C. became a Roman colony; The centuries of the territory were based on the Via Emilia and the Valley of Parma, along which the Road of the hundred miles was developed linking Parma to Luni. With the Longobards he was the capital of a Duchy, until with the arrival of the Franks Bishop Guidobono received the temporal power over the city from Charles the Great; The bishop's power lasted until the twelfth century, ending with the establishment of the municipality. Now ghibellina, now guelfa, Parma was for about a hundred years, from 1346 to 1447 in the hands of the Visconti, with a very brief interbranch of Ottobuono de' Terzi; They followed the Strengths and the French.
But 1521 marks the most important turning point for the city and Parmense, when the Pontifical army along with the Spanish army took possession of the territory. In 1545, Alexander Farnese, Pope Paul III, created for the illegitimate son Pier Luigi Farnese the Duchy of Parma. Until 1731, the Farnese family reigned in Parmigiano, making Parma a prestigious cultural and artistic capital, with works of great artists such as Correggio and Parmigianino.
The Parmense State was called the Duchy of Parma and Piacenza, and in the last glimpse of its existence, with the annexation of Guastalla, it became the Duchy of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla.
With the end of the Farnese, the territory went to the Borbor. After the Napoleonic occupation, the Vienna Congress entrusted the Duchy to the Habsburgs; This is how Parma had the wife of Duchess Maria Luigia of Austria, the wife of Napoleon, whose fame and remembrance is still held alive today in the historical cultural environments of Paris, but also in the imaginary and collective tradition of Parmenian.
Upon the death of Mary Luigia, the Borbans returned, to the resurrective motions that handed Parma and Parmense over to Savoy, and then flowed to the new kingdom of Italy.
How to orient
The neighborhood districts are: 1^ Center Parma; 2^ Overflow; 3^ Molinum; 4^ Pablo; 5^ golese; 6^ St. Pancrazio 7^ St. Leonardo; 8^ St Martin's yard; 9^ Ljubljana; 10^ St. Lazarus; 11 ^ Citadel; 12^ montanara; 13.
The city's communal territory comprises several small population centers: Trees, Baccanelli, Baganzola, Baganzolino, Beneceto, Botteghino, Carignan, Carinthian, Carpaneto, Cartiera, Casalbaron, Casarola de Ravadese, Houses, Houses Cocones, New Houses, Red Houses, Old Houses, Casino da Rosa, Castelletto, Castelnovo, Ca Terzi Cervara, Chiozzola, Coloreto, Coltaro, Corcagnano, Eia, Sewerel, Fontana, Fontanini, Gaione, New Ihiaiata, Moro, Catena, Palazzina, Malandriano, Marano, Mariano, Marorano, Martoran, Molino, Osteria San Martino, Panocchia, Paradium, Pedrignano, Pilastert, Pizzolese, Bridge, Porporan, Small Wells, Peerns, Ravadese, Ronco Pascolo, Rosa, San Donato, San Pancrazio, St Prospero Parmense, St Ruffino, Scarzara, Ugozzolo, Valera, Viarolo, Viarolo, Vicomfertile, Vicomero, Vicomero, Vicopò, Vopò Ice, Vigheffio, Vigolant.
How to get
- 1 Giuseppe Verdi Airport (IATA: PMF), Via Ferretti 50 (approximately 3 km north-west of the center of the city along the 9 Via Emilia road in the area of the Golese district). Reachable with urban bus line No. 6 (4 km) from 6.30 to 20.00 and by car with the North SS 9 tangential.
- Marconi Bologna airport
- Verona Catullo Airport
- Orio al Serio Caravaggio airport (BG)
- Milan Linate Airport
- Milan Malpensa Airport
- Parma motorway toll on A1
- Parma West motorway toll on the motorway of Cisa Parma - La Spezia
- 2 FS station in Parma, Square C.A. From the Church, 11. On the Milan-Bologna line.
- Troiolo Bus , Corso Garibaldi, 185 - Siderno, ☎ +39 0964 381325, Fax: , @[email protected]. The company allows direct connection of Parma with African, Ardore, Badolate, White, Bovalino, Brancaleone, Catanzaro, Catanzaro Lido, Caulonia, Davoli, Guardavalle, Isca on Jonio, Lamezia Terme, Locri, Marina di Gioiosa Ionica, Monasterace, Montepaone, Polyistena, Riace, Roccella Jonica, sarno, Saint Andrew Apostle of Jonio, Saint Catherine, Siderno, Soverato, Squillace, Taurianova and Vibo Valentia; not all links are daily.
How to move
Urban bus lines are operated by TEP.
Urban transport services are well managed and sufficiently comprehensive. The cost of the urban ticket is currently EUR 1,20 (01/05/2014) if purchased from an authorized resale service, if purchased in a car costs EUR 2,00, both are valid for one hour from the time of the cancelation and must be canceled at every bus change. To encourage the use of public transport, exchanger parking facilities have been built on the four main access routes (Via Emilia-East, Via Emilia-West, Via Asolana/Via Europa and Via Langhirano); Parking in these spaces and paying 2.00 euros per person, you have the opportunity to use public transport throughout the day without any additional costs, but always having the ticket issued at the parking lot. Anyone who arrives by train and needs information on how to reach a particular place on the bus, when leaving the station on the right, finds one of the various information points of TEP.
Also on the TEP website, you can find information about the 'Ready Bus' call service, which works at night and night hours.
There is also a bus service, run at the same time by the transport companies of Parma and Reggio Emilia, known as DiskBus, which links the main discos in the two provinces to a cost of EUR 2,50, which will be served from the entrance ticket to the club.
The taxi service is efficient but, given the small size of the city, it is not always convenient. The main places to find a taxi are the train station, the city airport, and Garibaldi Square.
Parma provides several fee parking areas, mainly located in the areas surrounding the historical center and the major hospital; these parking lots don't have time limits but they do have a pretty high cost. Those who want to leave their vehicle in parking areas face a relative shortage of seats and the blue lines, areas where parking is permitted but for payment, with a cost of between EUR 0.90 and EUR 1.50 per hour; in these areas, the duration of the stop is limited, the closer you are to the center, the rest allowed is short and varies from 30 minutes to 2 hours. Parking in the historical center areas, it is recommended that special attention be paid to marked parking areas with white and blue lines, which indicate pay during the day (usually from 8:00 to 8:00) and for the exclusive use of residents with a card during the night.
Parmigians like to travel by bicycle, for those who visit the city and want to enjoy the numerous bicycle lanes and roads closed to two-wheeled traffic, a bicycle rental service is in operation: Cicliteria, next to the railway station (entrance from the church) allows the rental of various types of bicycles from €1.50 per 1 hour.
What to see
- 1 (Assumption Cathedral), Dman Square, ☎ , @ [email protected] 8.00-19.00. It dates back to the 12th century and is one of the most imposing and artistically important churches in Emilia-Romagna and forms a monumental collection with the nearby Baptist that embraces the entire square and the next Palace of the Bishop, making it an enchanted corner out of time. In the Roman - padan style, it has a facade driven by three orders of line. The central entrance portal is framed by a proton with stylophone lions. The three - vault interior retains many important frescoes, including, in the dome, the Assumption of the Virgin, one of the masterpieces of the Correction that painted it from 1526 to 1530. In the right transect is the relief of the famous deposition of Benedict Antelami created in 1178. In the 12TH century pristine pieces of the master of the champion; In the abside, a Episcopal chair of the twelfth century in marble of Verona with altorilievi from Antelami.
- 2 Baptistero , Dman Square, ☎ +39 0521 235886, @ [email protected] €8.00 including a visit to the Diocesan Museum. March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October: 10,00-18,00 / January - February - November - December: 10.00-17.00. It's an octagonal plant, all around by the logge that's loosening its volume. In romantic gothic style, it was built from 1966 to be completed in 1270. The findings of the three portals and the statues placed in the niches are the work of Benedict Antelami. Inside the sculptures of months, seasons, zodiacal marks.
- 3 Bishop's Palace, Man's Square. Construction began in 1055 at the behest of the bishop Count Cadalo. At that time the building was located outside the city walls. Over the centuries, it has undergone many changes, but the medieval and renaissance elements of the structure are still perfectly visible.
- 4 Abbey of St. John the Evangelist (behind the cathedral). Built in the 10TH CENTURY by Bishop Sigifredo II on a previous oratory entitled St. Columban, the abbey is entrusted to the first Abbot John, the canon of the duo of Parma. In 1477 the entire complex was damaged by fire. The local basilica was rebuilt from about 1490 onwards, with a final project in 1510 by Bernardino Zaccagni. The work had to be completed by 1519. From its original plans, the Abbot Girolamo Spinola had planned to scan the architectural spaces with extensive paintings, ensuring early reassurance of the young Correggio, who only a few years earlier had given an excellent essay of his art in the city in another Benedictine monastery, the monastery of St. Paul, in which he had decorated the famous House of Badessa for the shess Giovanna Piacenza ... In San Giovanni Correggio he did five businesses in fresco. The first is usually considered the Lunetta with the Saint John and the Eagle (about 1520, the date of completion of which perhaps had the entire decorative complex in mind), followed by the dome in which the Ascension of Christ is found, accompanied by the decoration of the drum and the four plumes. The third project concerned the decoration of the time and the catino of the abside of the Chapel Major, which was partially destroyed in 1586 with the extension of the choir, the large central fragment of the Virgin's Coronation to the National Gallery in Parma today. The fourth was about the walls of the choir, which were completely destroyed by enlargement. The fifth is the painter frigate running all over the inner perimeter, still in situ. Preparatory drawings show that even parts left to collaborators were designed by Correction, such as the candles running on the side of the ribs of the time on the presbytery and the figures of points on the sails. In particular, in the fries, with an antichilizing taste, Correggio demonstrated the update of the most recent Roman shipyards, well before Giulio Romano disseminated these designs from Mantova (since 1524), apparently confirming the hypothesis of a trip to Rome Correggio during those years. Finally, at St. John Correggio, he left two canvases in the Chapel of the Bono at the Parma National Gallery in 1524: The tears on the dead Christ and the martyrdom of the four saints.
- 5 Chamber of St Paul (Chamber of Badessa), via Macedonian Melloni. Mar-Dom 9:00-13:00. Also known as the Chamber of Correction, it is certainly one of the most important places of urban art. It was part of the flat of the Badessa of the Convent of St. Paul, Giovanna da Piacenza, which had it restored and decorated the rooms. In 1519, Badessa Correggio made one of his masterpieces and the Italian Renaissance on the walls of the drawing room. The room is once of sixteen pieces; Correction painted you a bald with putts; In the long, classic monochrome figurations. The apartment also shows 1514 Alessandro Araldi paintings in a nearby room.
- 6 Basilica of Santa Maria della Steccata (Church of the Steccata), Square of the Steccata, 9. The church of the second decade of the 50TH CENTURY, is of Renaissance taste. He planted on a Greek cross and large semicirculars for each arm. The domes are equipped with a loggia that inspires their appearance. The interior is of solemn majesty, rich in 500TH CENTURY Parmenian school frescos; The dome shows an assumption of the Virgin by Bernardino Gatti. A cycle of frescoes from Parmigianino is present on the arcone of the third arm. The church is home to the monument of Adam Neipperg, the Morganetic Bride of Mary Luigia d'Austria duchess of Parma. The Temple of Our Lady of the fence is also the mausoleum of the Duchi of Parma; He keeps the Farnese graves in the underground.
- 7 Palace of Pilotta, Piazzale della Pilotta, 15, ☎ +39 0521 233309, @ Single cumulative ticket for entrance to the Farnese Theater, National Gallery, National Archeological Museum, Palatine Library and Bodonian Museum: Full €10, reduced by €5. Tuesday - Saturday: 8:30-19:00 / Sunday and holidays: 1:00-19:00 / Monday closed. It's the reggia of the Farnese, massive construction built from 1583 to 1622. The four-year building at the Central Court was bombed during the Second World War and was seriously damaged. The access is through a stopover that opens under large, armored darkies under the backs of massive brick pylons, giving the site a bit of a sense of wanting to intimidate those who want to access it. In the two central archates, the traffic now flows from the square that links the remaining square with the Lungoparma. It hosts the Farnese Theater, the National Archeological Museum, the upper floor of the National Gallery, which is one of the most interesting pinacotheques in Italy and the Palatine Library. The name Pilotta comes from the fact that in the courtyard we were playing ball, which is the Spanish pelota.
- 8 Theater Farnese, Pilot Palace. On the first floor of the Pilotta Palace, the French theater is one of the most evocative theaters in the world. Rebuilt in the 1950s after the devastation of the bombings of World War II, it returned to its original splendor. It was wanted by Duke Ranuccio I Farnese in 1618; its realization was entrusted to architect Giovan Battista Aleotti called Argenta. For its construction, Aleotti was inspired by the Olympic Theater of Vicenza del Palladio (1580) and by the Theater of Sabbioneta del Scamozzi (1588-1590). The theater was dedicated to the goddess of the Ballon War, but it was only inaugurated in 1628 on the occasion of the wedding of Odoardo Farnese, son of Ranuccio and Margherita de 'Medici, daughter of Cosimo; on that occasion, in addition to the various performances, there was even a naumachy made possible by the flooding of the knee, which is 87 meters long, 32 meters wide and 22 meters high. The stage is 40 meters by 12. The entire hall in which the theater was housed was coated with wood, a red fir of the Friuli, which was painted in imitation of the marble. It is the fourteen steps of the kingdom, which could host 3,000 spectators. in plaster, the statues of decoration with a mythological subject. A team of painters, led by Young Baptist Trotti called the Malosse, decorated the walls and the ceiling, works lost because of the bombing on May 13, 1944. Rebuilt between 1956 and 1960 with the original materials recovered, the theater is used as a prestigious entrance to the National Gallery in Parma. It has recently been re-used as a venue for theater performances and concerts.
- 9 Royal Theater. The Regio is one of the most prestigious and famous theaters in Italy. The city of Parma has always been the culprit of good music, and preserves and nurtures the cult of the great Joseph Verdi, son of this land. It is a well-established tradition that the opera singer approved by the Parma slogan will definitely have a great career. It was the duchess Maria Luigia who erected it, claiming that the French theater was insufficient. It began in 1821 and was concluded in 1829 and inaugurated with the work Zaira by Vincenzo Bellini who composed it for the occasion. It has a neoclassical facade with a porch consisting of ten ion columns; the eardrum is home to a lira and two ancient masks in the center. The audience is elliptical and displays the bi - chromatic decorations (white and gold) made in 1853 by Girolamo Magnani. In four orders, 112 balconies have been set up; the ducal stage is in the center. The fifth order hosts the balcony, which has independent access to the balconies. The ceiling was decorated by Giovan Baptist Borghesi with images of the great composers of plays: Goldoni, Seneca, Alfiers, Euripides, Plute, Aristophane and Metastasium. The curtain was painted by the same artist with a cheerful, Triumph of wisdom, who wants to celebrate the government of Mary Luigia, represented here as the goddess Minerva. It embellishes the hall a huge chandelier, manufactured in Paris and transported there and placed in the second half of the 19th century.
- 10 City Hall.
- 11 Church of the Most Holy Annunciation (past the Middle Bridge is located on the left along the way of the Aquila). One of the most important churches in the outskirts. The Fornovo designed a building made up of an elliptical central body with ten dishes (five by side) arranged in radiance around the sacred classroom: The building is accessed through a monumental entry arc located in the Via d'Azglio, the highway of St. Cross, and the portal is overshadowed by a large representative of the Virgin announced in 1681 by Giovan Baptist Barberini. The monks, in order to give a sign of continuity with their ancient conventual church, wanted the Great Pala with Our Lady with the Child and the Saints John the Baptist, Luke, John the evangelist and Francis (made by Francesco Zaganelli da cotignola) and the fresco of Correction with the Virgin Announced (now in the National Gallery of Parma) to be moved into the new building. ...
- 12 Palace and Ducal Park (Garden Palace), inside the Ducal Park. The Garden Palace, also known as the Ducal Palace of the Garden, is a historic palace located in Parma, inside the Ducal Park. It currently hosts the Parma Provincial Command of Carabinieri and one of the sites of RIS (the Carabinieri Weapons Scientific Investigation Department). It is planned to be used as a representative of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA).
- 13 Governor's Palace, Garibaldi Square. Originally from the 13TH century, it was the former headquarters of merchants and the governor. In 1760, the Petitot opened a niche in the tower where the statue of the Virgin crowned with stars by Christ was placed by Jean-Baptiste Boudard. An original vertical solar quadrant of 1829 is visible on the main facade. After a major internal renovation, since January 2010, the governor's Palace has aspired to become a permanent exhibition center for modern and contemporary art.
- 14 Old Hospital, Aquila. Created in 1250 on the northern side of the current Aquila route, it was later reconstructed. The first manifestation of the Renaissance of Parmesan architecture, the current building can be dated between the 15th and 16TH centuries on the project and construction of Gian Antonio da Erba. Inside the complex is the Oratory of St. Ilario. Since 1948, it has been the site of the State Archives and the City Library. A major retraining measure will allow a different use of this ancient medieval structure
- 15 Citadel, Pass Buole. Free. A great fortress built at the end of the sixteenth century by order of Duke Alexander Farnese, on the fringes of the historic walls of Parma, for defense purposes and as an emblem of the ducal power. Its construction was also an opportunity to provide jobs for most of the population. Pentagonally shaped architecture is strongly inspired by the citadel of Antwerp; its interior is a vast and very frequent public green space, equipped with sports facilities and children's games.
Remember: the Bosnian Museum and the Amedeo Bocchi Museum shall close at 1 p.m.; The Chinese and ethnographic museum, the opera museum and the sound museum close at 2:00 p.m. These museums must be visited in the morning. The National Gallery closes some rooms at 2 p.m., but on weekdays the masterpieces of Correggio and Parmigianino, the 19th Century Hall and the French Theater remain accessible until 7 p.m. Every first Sunday of the month, the French Theater, National Gallery and National Archeological Museum are open only in the afternoon at 1:30-19:00 and free entry.
Museums closed on Sunday: Archeological Museum (last of the month), Chinese and Ethnographic Art Museum, Bodonian Museum. On Monday: National Gallery, Glauco Lombardi, Museum of Chinese and Ethnographic Art, House of Music, House of Sound, Home of Toscanini, Amedeo Bocchi Museum, CSAC. On Tuesday: The Pinacotec Stuard, the chateau of puppets, House of Music, House of sound. On Saturday: Bodonian museum. For the Bossi Bocchi Palace and the Museum of Natural History Bottego see the entries below.
Since 1 October 2016, the civic museums (Pinacotec Stuard, puppet castle, House of Sound, Museum of Opera, Home and Toscanini museum) have been free of charge.
- 16 National Gallery and Theater Farnese , Pilotta Square, 5, ☎ +39 0521 233309, , @ [email protected] Gallery and theater input: €6, low boys (18-25 years) €3. Theater only: €2, low boys (18-25 years) €1. Reduced path: Full input €3, reduced €1.5. Free entry: school children with disabilities and accompanying persons, under 18 years of age, school pupils with a certified list of the school and the first Sunday of each month (opening 13:30-19:00). Mar-Sab 8:30-19:00, with reduced route after 14:00. Sunday and 8:30-14:00 festivals. First Sunday of the month, free opening 13:30-19:00. The ticket closes 30 minutes earlier. Among the most important Italian pinacotheque works, he mainly collects many works of the Parmenian paintings from 400 to 700, including works by Antonio Allegri called the Correggio and Francesco Mazzola called Parmigianino, as well as works by Beato Angelico, Canaletto, Sebastiano del Piombo, Guercino, Leonardo da Vinci, Tintoretto.
- 17 National Archeological Museum , Pilotta Square, 5, ☎ +39 0521 282787. whole 2€; small children (18-25 years) €1; Free under 18 years, high school students and teachers, university students in the humanities, the disabled and accompanying classes, journalists and tourist guides and the first Sunday of every month (13.30 - 19.00). Mar-Sab 8:30-19:00; Dom. and 8:30:-14:00. Closed Monday and last Sunday every month. Last entrance half an hour earlier. Founded in 1760 by Filippo I of Borbduca de Parma, the aim was initially to gather the numerous artifacts from the excavations of Velleia, a Roman city discovered in the Appennines of the ducal territory. The Traian Food Blank is very famous. It also includes Egyptian, Etruscan and Greek artifacts as well as prehistoric material.
- 18 Pinacoteca Giuseppe Stuard , Borgo Parmigianino 2, ☎ +39 0521 508184, @ [email protected] Free entry. Lun, Mer-Ven 10:00-17:00; Sab-Dom and 10:30-18:30 festivals. Pinacotec Stuard has been hosted since 2002 in the former Benedictine monastery of St. Paul, The collection of paintings (over 200 works), donated by Giuseppe Stuard (1790-1843) to the Congregation of Charity St. Filippo Neri, now passed to the municipality of Parma, includes gold tables of the XIV The 15th century, works by Bartholomew Schedoni, Giovanni Lanfranco (Lavinia Fontana, Girolamo Mazzola Bedoli and Flemish artists such as Martin de Vos, Jan Sons, Anthonis Mor and Frans Pourbus, to which additional pieces of acquisition were added, such as two still-life in Greece and a landscape of Bernardo Bellotto, and paintings of important local artists from the nineteenth-ninth-century artists 20th century (Guido Carmignani, Cecrope Barilli, Alberto Pasini, Daniele de Strobel, Paolo Baratta, Amedeo Bocchi).
- 19 Glauco Lombardi Museum , Giuseppe Garibaldi Street, 15, ☎ +39 0521 233727. Whole €5; reduced (15-17 years, more than 20 people and over 65 years) 3 €; free: up to 14 years of age, teachers on educational and disabled visits (september 2015). Mar-Sab 9:30-16:00; Sunday and 9:30-19:00. Sunday in July and August 9:30-14:00. The museum was born of the idea and will of the antiquarian and journalist Glauco Lombardi to search for the works and belongings scattered by Parma in the immediate aftermath of Italian unity, with particular reference to the personal belongings of Maria Luisa d'Habsburg, the second wife of Napoleon Bonaparte and Duchessa of Parma (1816-1847) ... Among the objects displayed in the museum are his dukish mantle, decorated with platinum embroidery, the wedding corbeille drawn by P.P. Prud'hon, and albums, letters, jewelry, diaries, aquarelli and other personal items belonging to the Duchess.
- 20 Chinese and Ethnographic Art Museum, San Martino 8, ☎ +39 0521 257337, @ [email protected] Open bid entry. Mar-Sab 9:00-14:00. Designed in 1899 by Msgr. Guido Maria Conforte to serve the education of the future missionaries, the Parma ethnographic and Chinese art museum has enriched itself with the material brought by the Saverian missionaries to their Parma Mother House, by donations and purchases. Many objects from China, like three third-millennium pottery vases. C., numerous other ceramics, bronze of the Shang dynasty, paintings, fabrics, sculptures, clothes, and a collection of ancient Chinese coins exceeding 8000 pieces. In the ethnographic section, the presence of ornaments and handicrafts (500 pieces) of the Kayapò, a people of the Amazon, is particularly important. They complete the ethnographic collection of objects of traditional African art, particularly in eastern Congo.
- 21 The puppet castle - Giordano Ferrari Museum , Via Melloni 3/a, ☎ +39 0521 031631, @ [email protected] Free entry. Lun, Mer-Ven 10:00-17:00; Sab-Dom and 10:30-18:30 festivals. The museum of puppets was born in 2002 in the former monastery of St. Peter. Paolo thanks to the rich collection of Giordano Ferrari, a member of one of the most famous Italian puppeteers' families. Under the crumbled times of the building, a part of the 1500 pieces made or collected by Ferrari, consisting of puppets, puppets, scripts, photographs, posters and other objects concerning the art of puppet puppets in general, are displayed. In addition to the classic figures of the Emiliana tradition, such as Sandrone, Fagiolino and the Parmigiano Bargnòcla, created by the father of Giordano Ferrari, there are puppets and puppets from all Italian regions and from various foreign countries. Other objects come from previous collections donated to the museum, such as Antonio Moroni, Franco Cristoforo and Amilcare Adamoli. The most recent collection is made up of the television puppets of the Group 80 (Five, Uan and Ambrogio), led by Kitty Perria and Enrico Valenti. In addition to the exhibition, the museum organizes performances, school teaching and animation theater reviews, to spread knowledge of this ancient art.
- 22 House of Music - Museum of Opera, Piazzale S. Francesco, 1, ☎ , @[email protected]. Free entry. Mer-Ven 10:00-14:00, Sab-Dom 10:00-18:00. Other days and Gio-Ven afternoon only on reservation (at least one day in advance). The museum, divided into four rooms, collects documents of the past (objects, musical instruments, posters, photographs) to illustrate in the first two halls the evolution of the opera house in Parma, from 1600 to the present day, between the construction of the Theater Farnese, inaugurated in 1628 with the "Royal Tournament" Mercurio and Martedi Monteverdi , the Ducale Theater and the New Ducale Theater (now Royal Theater) inaugurated in 1829 with Zaira of Bellini; The nineteenth century music in Parma is represented by the figures of the orchestra conductors CleoSource Campanini and Arturo Toscanini, and by the composer Ildebrando Pizzetti. The other two halls are reserved for the figure of Giuseppe Verdi and his relations with the city of Parma, in particular the celebrations of 1913 (centenary of birth) in Parma and Busseto, his birthplace. Most of the material comes from the Royal Theater's Historical Archives, which are also available via a multimedia and computer system.
- 23 House of Music - House of Sound , Balls of Purchase, ☎ +39 0521 031103, @ [email protected] Free entry. Mer-Ven 10:00-14:00, Sab-Dom. 10:00-18:00. Other days and afternoons of Thursday and Friday only on reservation (at least one day in advance). Located in a desecrated church (St. Elizabeth) from 1674 is a historical collection of tools that allow sound reproduction and transmission. It's about 400 pieces ranging from the first of phonographs and radios to galena, between the late 19th century and early 20th century, passing through transistor radios, 33 and 45 rpm disks, disk-eating machines and cassette recorders of the mid-19th century, to Compact Disk readers and digital players of our time. There are two listening spaces: The audio lamp and the White Room, audio installations with hundreds of speakers, allowing the creation of virtual sound sources moving three-dimensional around the listener.
- 24 Home and Toscanini Museum, Via R. Tanzi, 13, ☎ , @[email protected]. Free entry. Mar 9:00-13:00; Mer-Sab 9:00-13:00 and 14:00-18:00; Dom 10:00-18:00. On March 25, 1867, orchestra conductor Arturo Toscanini was born in this small house in the old popular district of the superpower, transformed into a museum in 1967 to mark the centenary of the Master's birth and renewed in 2007. Each room is rich in heirlooms, mostly from the musicians' residences in Milan, Durini Street, and his villa in Riverdale, USA: documents, photographs, paintings, furniture, clothes, handwritten letters from Green, Puccini, Ravel and other musicians. You can listen to recordings and watch a biographical documentary in a dedicated room.
- 25 Diocesan Museum, Bishop's alley, 3 (Man's Square), ☎ +39 0521 208699, @ [email protected] Input: €5; Comitative and over €65 3, schools €1. Museum and Baptist tickets: €7; Groups and more than €65 5; schools €1. Free up to 12 years, disabled and accompanying persons (September 2015). Lun-Dom 9:00-12:30 and 15:00-18:30. The museum was inaugurated in March 2003, after a complex restructuring operation that affected the 11TH century Bishops' Palace. The archeological finds and works of art from Parma Cathedral, the Baptist and diocesan territory have been refurbished. During the works, the late 3rd century AD Roman walls emerged. The museum itinerary provides a path that follows the history of religious worship in the city, beginning with the Roman period and continuing with the high-medieval and medieval section. Of particular value and interest are the Roman and Palestinian Christian mosaics (V - VI century) found in 1955 in Dman Square, the fragments of the Roman sarcophagus (first half of the third century), a sarcophagus with Bas - relief depicting the seasons; an epigraphy (3rd century) which testifies to the cultural syncretism within which Christianity was being formed in Parmense territory, a paleocristian lizard with the Monogram of Christ, coming from the Carignan area, some coins and stucks of a Roman domus, located beneath the Cathedral, re-emerged during the renovation work of the building, a picture During the unusual iconographic theme of Saint Martin with a pilgrim. The six original statues, by Benedict Antelami found in the outer niches of the Baptist, are particularly important and are now replaced by copies: They depict Solomon and the Queen of Saba, David and Prophet Natan, the Archangels Michael and Gabriele. Its placement in the museum, due to its conservation needs, allows it to be seen closely. Four stylophore lions from the cathedral's counterfacade are also referred to the Antelami. The original statue of the Angelo Raffaele in golden copper at the end of the 13TH century, one of the symbols of the city, affectionately called "Angiol d'Or" or "Angiolèn da Dòm" by the Parmigians, from the top of the Cathedral bell tower (replaced by a copy since 1962), should be reported.
- 26 Bodonian Museum , Pilotta Square, 5 (Entrance from the Palatine Library), ☎ , @ [email protected] Free entry. Lun-Ven 9:00-13:00 on reservation. The museum retains printed books and instruments belonging to the well-known G-printer. B. Bodoni (1740-1813) creator of the famous typeface bearing his name. The museum has a huge collection of bodonian opera: a thousand printed editions, 12,000 letters, documents, punches, characters, limes, stones, spoons for a total of approximately 80,000 pieces; the reproduction of a printing press on the model used by the health printer, a dissemination part devoted to the history of the book, from the manuscript to the printed book, and the evolution of the printed page and the typefaces over time.
- 27 Amedeo Bocchi Museum , Cairoli 10/a (Sanvital Palace), ☎ +39 0521 228289, @ Free entry. Mar-Dom 10:30-13:00. The museum, which was inaugurated in 1999, is housed in the restored spaces of the ancient Sanvital Palace, the seat of Banca Monte Parma and the foundation Monte di Parma, in the historic center of Parma. Dedicated to Amedeo Bocchi (Parma 1883 - Rome 1976), an outstanding artist of the Italian art of the 20TH CENTURY: The core of the collection was donated by the heirs to the Monte di Parma Foundation, which then increased the collection through further significant acquisitions. Following the chronological exhibition, the visitor relives the human path of the painter, marked by the affections he is too soon deprived of, and the painter, marked by the inexhaustive research of light and aesthetics, at the heart of his artistic work. Oil paintings, watercolors, crayons, grubbing, drawings, sketches and sculptures unfold gradually as the artistic parable of Bocchi is displayed, in which the cultural references of the last century can be read in transparency. The museum is divided into six rooms: The years of formation, Rita, the masterpieces, the drawings, White, in the solitude of Villa Strohl-Fern.
- 28 Bossi Bocchi Palace , Road to Bridge Caprazucca, 4, ☎ +39 0521 532111, @ [email protected] Free entry. Mar and Gio 15:30-18:00; 10:00-12:30 and 15:30-18:00. The Cariparma Foundation has been based since 1995 and is also the site of its art collections, distributed in about fifteen rooms. The first four show Italian pigs from the 15th and 16TH centuries of the Garbarino collection, with Eastern and French ceramics. The other rooms are each dedicated to a particular artistic subject, or painter, usually local and foreign artists who have worked for the Duchy of Parma and Piacenza from its founding to the post-unitary era. Among these, the most well - known is the Parmigianino, of which the museum exhibits a pen-based self portrait and a sheet containing eight strong spirits; In the same room we find a painting by Lanfranco and one by Salvator Rosa. Among the rooms dedicated to a particular artistic subject are the Hall of the 19th and 19th Century Landscapes, the Hall of Portraits of 17th and 19th Centuries, and a third that brings together still-dead and religious subjects of the same periods. Among the rooms reserved for a single artist, in addition to the 180th century works of Giovan Baptista Borghesi, we have the two rooms hosting the 90th century works of Bruno Zoni and Goliardo Padua. The nineteenth century is also represented by a hall with paintings of Daniele De Strobel, Cecrope Barilli and Amedeo Bocchi, and a second hall with various artists, including Ligabue. Another room is reserved for the sculptures of Luigi Froni, whose works are nevertheless disseminated to other rooms of the museum. At the end of the route, a room is dedicated to works and objects linked to the duchess Maria Luigia and her period (1815 - 1847). In the basement of the palace there is also a collection of postcards from the Unity of Italy today, second only to that of the Banca d 'Italia.
- 29 Museum of Natural History Bottego (Museum of Natural History of Parma University), Via Université, 12 / Via Farini 90 (By bus: Lines 9 - 12 - 13 - 21, near Line 2 - 15. On foot: University Street is just a few steps away from P.zza Garibaldi, Farini Street is located in approximately 10 minutes), ☎ +39 0521 033430, @[email protected]. Free entry. Location of Via Farini 90: Lun-Gio 9:00-13:00 and 14:30-17:00 (18:00 summer) Ven 9:00-13:00. Street University 12: Lun and Gio 16:00-18:00. Established in 1766.
Out of town
- 30 CSAC Center for Studies and Communication Archive , Valserena Abbey, Via Viazza di Paradigna, 1 (Certosa is reachable from Parma following SS 343 (Provincial Road Colorno), continuing 7 km north.), ☎ +39 0521 60 , @ [email protected] Whole €10; reduced groups of 10-20 people and €8 conventions; Reduced groups of more than 20 people, 13-18 years old, university students, teachers, Unipr 5 € staff; Low school fees €3. Free under 13, students from the University with teachers, journalists, tour guides interpreting in service, handicaps and accompanying persons (September 2015). Mar-Ven 10:00-15:00; Sab-Dom 10:00-20:00. Founded in 1968 and 2007, the Abbey of Valserena (or "Certosa of Paradigna"), in which some 12 million works of various contemporary art (from 1900 onwards) are exhibited.
Events & Holidays
Events in Parma.
- 3 Parma fairs, Exhibition Avenue, 30, ☎ +39 0521 9961, @[email protected] fairground of 300 000 square meters with international trade fairs: food, food processing, antiquary, plein air.
- 4 Green Festivals (In The Royal Theater). in october. Italian opera music festival
What to do
- Visits to dairy companies , ☎ +39 0521 958900, @[email protected].
- Visits to the hams on the streets of taste. In the hills of Langhirano and the surrounding area.
- Visit to the producers of Culatello, Square Garibaldi 34 - Zibello (Zibello Culatello Protection Consortium), ☎ fax: , @[email protected]. ,
- Camper Food Museums (Food Museums are located along the "Gusto Way" that crosses the territory of Paris and allows in one or more days to visit all museum realities dedicated to products typical of the territory.). The stages are: A1 Fidenza Salsomaggiore Terme then heading Soragna (10 km), to discover the "Museum of Parmigiano Reggiano". The second leg of the tour is Fontanellato, with the Rocca Sanvita (10 km). The third leg of the trip is Ponte Taro, where it is diverted in the direction of Collecchio and then the Baganza Hall (18 km). This is the Sanvital Rock that hosts the "Wine Museum." The fourth leg of the Felino (5 km) with the Castle, which is the seat of the Salame Museum. The fifth leg of the Langhirano (12 km) with the "Museum of ham". Last stop at the Mamiano di Traversetolo (12 km), with the Magnani Rocca Foundation, the masterpiece's villa. From here, you go back to Parma, to the A1 toll booth (16km).
- Tastybike, Parma Tourist Information Office, Square Garibaldi, 1 - Parma (Group Eogastronomic Tour on e-bike, to uncover the packages of Parma), ☎ , @ [email protected] €89.00 per person. from 15 April to 31 October, from Monday to Saturday 9.30 to 14.00. Transfer with a minivan, guide, E-bike rental, helmet rental, wine tasting
- Food Valley Travel, ☎ +39 0521 218889 - 0521 798515, @[email protected]. 25 April - 1 May - 2 June - 15 August - 1 November. Tour the discovery of the Food Valley.
The shopping streets are concentrated in the historic center, particularly along the Via Cavour, Via Garibaldi, the nearest parts of Garibaldi Square in the Farini and Road Republic and the areas on these streets which are directly adjacent. The most visited shopping centers of Parmigians, the Barilla Center and the Euro Torri are easily accessible via public transport.
The train station in Fidenza is only 15 minutes away from Parma. Every 10 minutes the bus leaves for the Outlet Village.
How to have fun
- 1 Edison D'Essai Cinema, 8th March, 9th/a.
- 2 Essai Film, 33Aquila.
- 3 Astra D'Essai Film, Piazzale Volta, 3.
- 4 Theater Regio, Garibaldi Road, 16/a.
- 5 Cinderella Theater, Ducale Park, 1 (Park Theater).
- 6 Campus Music Industry , Largo Francesco Antonio Simonini, 1 (Entry from the square of the South exchanger parking lot). The concert hall offers cover bands and local and Italian artists. It also offers test rooms for local bands.
- 7 Extravagant Corriera, Via Plato 3, ☎ . The club offers good sandwiches and nice wines and beers. Ideal for a night with friends.
- 8 Chelsea Pub, Via Emilio Lepido 22/a. Another historic Parma club needs some of the best beers in all of Parma and the best sandwiches.
- 9 Escape Café (Tiki Bar), Off La Spezia 108. This is a very good place for a drink with friends. Luigi Barone, one of Italy's best cocktail makers, offers his customers extremely special drinks, nitrogenated cocktails, carbonates and much more.
- 10 Shakespeare café, Via Goito 1. A place that offers sought-after musical events as well as a good kitchen and comfortable environment.
- 11 Tabarro , Farini Road 5/b. The premises offer a highly sought - after selection of wines from all parts of Italy and the staff are highly competent and available.
Where to eat
Parmigians love the good table and, in principle, they prefer the culture of slow food even when it comes to eating a sandwich in the air.
Although in recent years we have seen the opening of several restaurants from foreign groups linked to the fast food environment, Parmigian remains connected to traditional bars, almost all of which are located in the city center or in its immediate vicinity.
If you're looking for a good sandwich or a little bit of fun for lunch or during the afternoon, you can't miss a visit from Pepèn, in Borgo Sant'Ambrogio to Civic 2, practically attached to Garibaldi Square in the middle of town. the place is very small and you eat only standing or, at peak times, on the street, but the quality of the ingredients and the abundance of filling make it a very obligatory destination; it's highly recommended to enjoy their typical dish, the artichoke.
Another one of Parma's most prominent fast-food venues is "The Panino Clinic", in Borgo Palmia 4/d, also just a few steps from Garibaldi Square, known for the huge sandwiches.
At dinner, the Parmigian prefers traditional cuisine, which is also evident from the small number of ethnic restaurants present in the city (although growing in recent years). In the center there are some of the most renowned city restaurants such as "The Little Sisters" in Farini Street 27, the "Court Story" in Politi Avenue 5, or the "Ancient Osteria della Ghiaia" in Borgo Paggeria at 12, just to name a few.
Regardless of where you choose to eat, you will always find the dishes that are typical of the Parmigian kitchen. The convivial meal typical of Parmigian often begins with a starter based on typical sausages (raw of Parma, cooked shoulder, Zibello cradle, cups, Felino salami) and fried cake, a preparation based on flour, oil and salt and fried in the lard.
The first of them, the most beloved of them (especially during the holidays), is a dish of Anolini in broth, an egg paste filled with a beef overcoat, Parmigiano-Reggiano, nutmeg and bread. The Parmigians have no less in common with the peatlands, traditionally herbette (biets or spinach combined with ricotta) or potatoes, the latter served with a pork mushroom sauce; Other types of tortelli you can enjoy are pumpkin (typical of the nearby province of Mantova), chestnut or nettle, which are much more difficult to find and almost exclusively in the mountainous areas of the province. In any case, tradition demands that the tortelles, cooked in saltwater, be "drowned in butter and dried with parmigian".
Among the second typical dishes, the increasingly rare find of an overripe asinine in various versions throughout the province is noted. more commonly, parmigian orders various boils (usually beef and chicken) served with herbal sauces or red vegetables, various kinds of hunting (especially wild boar, very present on the henna), or barbecues of meat, much rarer to find those who make manger. Other typical dishes are horse pesto, a preparation made from minced horse meat and served raw seasonings with oil, salt, pepper, garlic and lemon and "La Vecchia", prepared with horse pesto cooked with onions, peppers, potatoes and tomatoes.
Unfortunately, the Parmigian sweet landscape is very limited, with only spongata (pastry filled with pins, marmalade, candy and almonds), Maria Luigia cake (a Spanish cake filled with chocolate and a cream of strawberry, covered with melting chocolate, but difficult to find) and sweet baked or fried cake (biscuit paste stuffed with marmalt You can find it almost at every baker.)
- 1 Walter (The Clinic del Panino), Borgo Palmia 4/d, ☎ . Paris - style fast food.
- 2 Frank Focaccia , Piazzale San Lorenzo 9/a. Another Parmesan - style fast food outlet offers flatbread made in the highest - quality home.
- 3 Pepèn, Borgo Sant'Ambrogio 2. The tradition of Parmigian street cooking, the highest quality and the tastes.
- 4 Fast Pedal (Arci Circle), Borgo Bernabei 29. A small club that serves almost exclusively fried cake and good quality sausages at a very good price.
- 5 Club House Rugby Parma, Via Green Lake 6. €35/40. A typical Parmigian kitchen of good quality.
- 6 Proceedings of the General Court, Vicolo Politi 5. 40/50 € . One of Parma's historic trades, a good kitchen and a capable staff.
- 7 Salumeria Garibaldi , Garibaldi Road, 42, ☎ +39 0521 235606. Meals and cheeses.
- 8 Operaviva Restaurant , Via Giovanni Inzani 15, ☎ +39 0521 206001. Stylish room.
- 9 Angiol D'Or Restaurant , Scutellar alley 1 - Demergencies Square, ☎ +39 0521 282632. Excellent position in the historic center and refined kitchen.
Where to stay
- 1 Hotel San Marco & Formula Club, Via Emilia West - Pontetaro, ☎ +39 0521 615072, @ [email protected]
- 2 Hotel Ponte Colorno Parma (Hotel 3 stars), Asolana State Road, 89 - Colorno (Near the Po Bridge), ☎ +39 0521 815761, fax: , @[email protected].
- 3 Hotel Button (3-star hotel), Borgo of Salina, 7, ☎ , Fax: , @[email protected].
- 4 Albergo Tre Ville , Avenue Benedetta 97/A, ☎ , @ [email protected] Check In: 4:30, check out: 11:00.
- 5 Hotel Turin , Borgo Angelo Mazza, 7, ☎ +39 0521 281046.
- 6 Park Hotel Pacchiosi**** , ☎ +39 0521 077077, @[email protected]. Secular park. 59 newly renaissance furnished rooms.
Parma is a quiet city, both day and night, there are rarely cases of violence and even thefts of tourists are contained, although it is always advisable not to display jewelry and to have only the amount of cash needed for the day, leaving the rest at the hotel safe. The relatively turbulent areas of the city are few and well - defined and, with the sole exception of Peace Square (or Pilotta Square), outside the tourist itinerary.
Parma's useful numbers.
- 5 Carabinieri Command Parma Centro, Via Garibaldi, 20, ☎ +39 0521 5371.
- 6 Municipal Police, Cutting Road, 8/a, ☎ .
- 7 Hospital Major, Via Gramsci, 14, ☎ +39 0521 702111.
How to stay in touch
- 8 Poste Italiane, Via Pisacane, 1.
- 9 Poste Italiane, Piazzale Santa Croce, 7.
- 10 Italian Post, Borgo Giacomo Tommasini, 6.
- 11 Paradigna — towards Colorno-CasalMaggiore, town Paradigna. This monumental church known as Certosa of Paradigna, and formerly Certosa of St Martin, actually certosa was never, ever a Certosini. His official name is Abbey of Valserena and was wanted by the Parmense Cardinal Gerardo Bianchi to whom the plea was given by Pope Boniface VIII with a pontifical bubble of April 15, 1298. The construction took place on the site of the existing SVD of St Martin in a place called San Martino dei Bocci, a word Parmigian for dung and prunes. It was the Cistercian monks of the Abbey of Chiaravalle in the Colombian who cleared the area to make it suitable for crops, and to build church and monastery. The founder called it the Abbey of Valle Serena, or Valserena, with the aim of emphasizing the peace and consequent serenity that the place was supposed to bring. Its construction went on in various stages for a long time, until it was consecrated in 1385. It became increasingly important in time, so much so that in 1810, the year of the abolition by Napoleonic decree, it had 500 friars. Built with a Latin cross, three-way cruise system, it has sunk out into opposing pillars that hold acute arcs. A polygonal tiburum is erected at the crossroads between the aisle and the transect; the abside is square. The interior used to have a prized altar high, in addition to a fresco in Parmigianino on its way to the presbytery and many other paintings. The works of art which he maintained were transferred to the Academy of Fine Arts in Parma at the time of the abolition. The facade was repaired in the 17th century. The complex is currently (2013) owned by the University of Parma, which after a long and wise renovation is using it for its activities.
- The controversy La Certosa di Paradigna is identified by many in the "certosa di Parma" that inspired Stendhal's famous novel. Others identify Certosa Stendhaliana at the Certosa of San Girolamo, the real Certosa located not far from the Mantua street. The controversy, which has produced several publications of articles by various scholars, is still ongoing.
- 12 St. Gimignan — Da Parma following by car via Volshift; by train from Vicofertile station on the Parma-La Spezia line. The 1039 romantic snowball is in Vicofertile soil (but its present appearance was given to her in the 13TH century). Inside, considerable 12TH century capitals are preserved.
- 13 Magnani-Rocca Foundation — The Magnani-Rocca Foundation is an important private collection that hosts masterpieces of ancient, modern and temporary art.
- Piacenza Emiliana but also a bit of an Lombardy, a rail and road node on the right bank of the Po, retains a beautiful historical center with considerable monuments — the Municipal Palace (the Gothic), the Dman — and a seigniorly urban system. It was co-capital of the Duchy of Parma and Piacenza.
- Fidenza — The Saint Donnino Cathedral, is a fully-fledged cathedral of the great Roman cathedrals of Emilia, for example Parma and Modena; It boasts a façade - unfinished - with statues and Bas - relief of Benedict Antelami and his school.
- Colorno — His Reggia was Sanseverino, then the Farnese, Maria Luigia of Austria, the Borbum; It is by far the most important monument of this little Versailles Parmense, which also has a small but beautiful historic center, just off the stream Lorno that gives it its name and Parma, just off the Po.
- Sabbioneta — Founding City, UNESCO World Heritage, maintains the masonry within which the magic of the ideal town planning by Vespasian Gonzaga remained intact; The Ancient Theater, the Ducale Palace, the Gallery, the church of the Crown are some of its monuments that stand out in a context that has been miraculously preserved.
- Guastalla — It was the capital of the Duchy with Parma and Piacenza; She had been with the Gonzaga and then the Torelli. Its historic center, with traces of the ancient baluardi, retains an important urban plot.
- The Rocca Meli Lupi, gentlemen of the country for hundreds of years, stands in the center of Soragna; he never suffered the outrage of the conquest or the ensuing looting. The historical center with typical Padani features is also interesting.
- Founded — The mighty but elegant Sanctuary Rocca in the center of the country, and the shrine (of great interest to pilgrims from this Padan area of Lower Elijana) are the main reasons for this beautiful Padano center.
- CasalMaggiore — Casalasco Capital, protected by large banks, is developing in parallel with the bed of the Po. The wide breadth of the main square, the undeniable majesty of the municipal and Dman Palace, reveals its importance as a center of the Lower House. The shrine of Our Lady of the Fontana, the Church of St. Clare, and the church of the hospital are among its most important monuments.
- Collecchio — It boasts a romantic mountain that still retains part of its original construction, and a vast natural forest area, the Carrega woods in which the artistic palace of the Boschi Casino is located.
- Castles in the Ducato di Parma and Piacenza — Destroyed on the Parmense and pleasant handeen, but also present on the plain to monitor the natural boundary of the Po, the many castles of the ancient Ducato di Parma and Piacenza characterize the whole area. Military barrels originally, many of them maintained the inaccessible appearance of a rock, many of them have gradually transformed their warfare nature into a refined, noble dwelling; they all perpetuate the atmosphere of adventure, fairy tale and legend that has always been linked to the castles, many of which are the presence of spirits and ghosts.
- In the lands of Matilde — The itinerary runs a large part of the territory that was, on a 12th century horse, ruled and lived by the great countess Matilde of Canossa.
- 14 IAT Tourism information and accommodation, Garibaldi Square, 1, ☎ +39 0521 218889, fax: , @[email protected].